Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the scientific study of behavior. It uses the principles of behavior to produce socially signifcant changes.
ABA is most commonly used for children with autism in the following ways:
a) Increase behaviors, such as on task behavior or desired social skills
b) Teach new skills, such as functional skills or communicative behaviors
c) Maintain behaviors, such as self monitoring
d) Generalize behavior from one situation or response to another
e) Restrict conditions under which negative behavior occurs, such as modifying one's environment
f) Reduce interfering behaviors, such as tantrums or vocal outbursts
Verbal Behavior (VB) is a methodology that is based upon behavioral principles, and views language as a behavior.
a) Intensive teaching setting which contains a fast tempo
b) Interspering easy and hard demands
c) Fading prompts as quickly as possible
d) Using child-specific reinforcement to increase motivation to learn
e) Planning for generalization
Pivotal Response Teaching
Pivotal Response Teaching (PRT) is a method that is based in ABA methodology, as it involves collecting data in an effort to make decisions and determine effective implementation of programming.
PRT differs from more traditional ABA models in that it:
a) Teaches the student to respond in naturally occuring settings and to seek out such opportunities
b) The metholodogy strives to reduce the need for continual instruction
c) PRT does not use any negative interactions
d) It reduces dependence on artificial reinforcers
e) It is family centered
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) is a structured instructional strategy in which the student learns in a one on one environment in a controlled and systematic manner.
DTT teaching is most benefical for students who:
a) Need to learn a skill in small, repeated, systematic steps
b) Requires a concrete beginning and ending to instruction
c) Respond well to positive praise or tangible reinforcement
Fluency Teaching is designed to take an existing skill, and increase accuracy and speed skill performance in order to develop competence. A target skill is chosen and then taught to a predetermined level of fluency.
Teaching a skill to fluency may accomplish the following:
a) Long term retention of the skill
b) The abilty to perform the skill at a particular level over time
c) The ability to combine elements of behaviors to create a more complex behavior